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Models for structuring reflection


Example 3 - Johns' model for structured reflection

Johns' model (Johns, 2000) was developed for nursing practitioners but is applicable to any field. Johns suggests that the "Model for Structured Reflection" is a technique that is especially useful in the early stages of learning how to reflect. The 'Looking in' and 'Looking out' is a way of challenging our natural tendency to judge ourselves too harshly.

Model for Structured Reflection - adapted from Johns (2000)

Looking in:

  • Find a space to focus on self
  • Pay attention to your thoughts and emotions
  • Write down these thoughts and emotions

Looking out:

  • Write a description of the situation
  • What issues seem significant
  • Aesthetics
    • What was I trying to achieve?
    • Why did I respond as I did?
    • What were the consequences for myself and others?
    • How were others feeling?
    • How did I know this?
  • Personal
    • Why did I feel the way I did within this situation?
  • Ethics
    • Did I act for the best?
  • What factors were influencing me?
  • What knowledge did or could have informed me?
  • Reflexivity
    • How does this situation relate to previous experiences?
    • How could I have handled this better?
    • What would have been the consequences of alternative actions?
    • How do I feel now about the experience?
    • How can I support myself and others better in the future?